Catholic Church

[[Saint Peter's Basilica]], [[Vatican City]] The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

The Christian beliefs of Catholicism are based on the Nicene Creed. The Catholic Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles, and that the pope is the successor to Saint Peter upon whom primacy was conferred by Jesus Christ. It maintains that it practises the original Christian faith, reserving infallibility, passed down by sacred tradition. The Latin Church, the twenty-three Eastern Catholic Churches, and institutes such as mendicant orders, enclosed monastic orders and third orders reflect a variety of theological and spiritual emphases in the church.

Of its seven sacraments the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in the Mass. The church teaches that through consecration by a priest the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ. The Virgin Mary is venerated in the Catholic Church as Mother of God and Queen of Heaven, honoured in dogmas and devotions.|}} Its teaching includes Divine Mercy, sanctification through faith and evangelisation of the Gospel as well as Catholic social teaching, which emphasises voluntary support for the sick, the poor, and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world.

The Catholic Church has influenced Western philosophy, culture, art, and science. Catholics live all over the world through missions, diaspora, and conversions. Since the 20th century the majority reside in the southern hemisphere due to secularisation in Europe, and increased persecution in the Middle East.

The Catholic Church shared communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, disputing particularly the authority of the pope, as well as with the Oriental Orthodox churches prior to the Chalcedonian schism in 451 over differences in Christology. The Reformation of the 16th century resulted in Protestants breaking away.

From the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has received criticism from some for its teaching on sexuality, its refusal to ordain women, as well as the handling of sexual abuse cases involving clergy.

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by Catholic Church.
Published 1969
Location: Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame
Subjects: '; ...Funeral service Catholic Church Latin....
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by Catholic Church
Published 1912
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Consecration of bishops -- Catholic Church....
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by Catholic Church.
Published 185-
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Liturgy -- Texts....
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by Catholic Church
Published 1903
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Doctrines....
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by Catholic Church
Published 1850
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Secret societies -- Religious aspects -- Catholic Church....
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by Catholic Church
Published 1875?
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Doctrinal and controversial works....
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by Catholic Church
Published 1891
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Customs and practices....
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by Catholic Church
Published 1839
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Rites and Ceremonies....
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by Catholic Church.
Published 1962
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Armenian rite....
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by Catholic Church
Published 1937
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Catechisms....
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by Catholic Church.
Published 1873
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Liturgy -- Early works to 1800....
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by Catholic Church.
Published 1969
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Baptism -- Liturgy -- Texts -- Catholic Church....
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by Catholic Church
Published 1972
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church. -- Liturgy of the hours....
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by Catholic Church
Published n.d.
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Liturgy -- Texts....
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by Catholic Church
Published 1971
Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Funeral service -- Catholic Church....
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by Catholic Church. Pope.
Published 1614
Location: Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church. Pope (1303-1304 : Benedict XI)...
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Location: Benedictine University Library, Benedictine University
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church Byzantine rite Prayers and devotions....
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Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church Extension Society...
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Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church. -- Province of Baltimore (Md.). -- Provincial Council -- (5th :...
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Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Pastoral letters and charges....
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Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church. -- Province of Mexico City (Mexico)...
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Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Government....
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Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Maryland -- Baltimore....
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Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Government....
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Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- United States -- Congresses....
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Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Michigan -- Charities -- Periodicals....
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Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Archdiocese of Philadelphia (Pa.)...
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Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...Catholic Church -- Archdiocese of Philadelphia (Pa.)...
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Subjects: '; ...Laity -- Catholic Church....
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Location: PAHRC Library, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC)
Subjects: '; ...World War, 1914-1918 -- Catholic Church....
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