Franciscans

A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans{{refn|name=sbf}} The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders of the Catholic Church. Founded in 1209 by the Italian saint Francis of Assisi, these orders include three independent orders for men (the Order of Friars Minor being the largest contemporary male order), orders for nuns such as the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis open to male and female members. They adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary. Several smaller Protestant Franciscan orders or other groups have been established since late 1800's as well, particularly in the Anglican and Lutheran traditions.

Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope did not allow ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans traveled and preached in the streets, while staying in church properties. Clare of Assisi, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares (Order of Saint Clare) of the Franciscans.

The extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223. The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions.}}}} The Order of Friars Minor, previously known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" (formed 1517) and "Capuchins" (1520). The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII.}} The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as minorites or greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead.

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  1. 1
    ...Franciscans. Provincia de Cataluña...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
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    Created 1827
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
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    Created 1511
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame
    Book
  13. 13
    Created 1896
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: John J. Burns Library, Boston College
    Journal
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    Created 1992
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  17. 17
    Created 1968
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
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    Created 1950
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  20. 20
    Created 1962
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  21. 21
    Created 1975
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  22. 22
    Created 1876
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  23. 23
    Created 1899
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  24. 24
    Created 1938
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  25. 25
    Created 1903
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  26. 26
    Created 1961
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
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    Created 1896
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame
    Journal
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    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame
    Journal
  31. 31
    Created 1985
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame
    Book
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    Created 1928
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  37. 37
    Created 1956
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  38. 38
    Created 1957
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  39. 39
    Created 1930
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  40. 40
    Created 1957
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  41. 41
    Created 1969
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  42. 42
    Created 1965
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  43. 43
    Created 1910
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  44. 44
    Created 1948
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
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    Created 1881
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  47. 47
    Created 1955
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  48. 48
    Created 1941
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  49. 49
    Created 1774
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book
  50. 50
    Created 1963
    ...Franciscans...
    Location: Paul Bechtold Library, Catholic Theological Union
    Book